Cognitive-behavioral therapy, can include any of the following:
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Rational Behavior Therapy
Rational Living Therapy
Dialectic Behavior Therapy
revolves around the joint efforts of the therapist & the client; when each fulfills their part of a regimented clearly
planned program to dispel the undesired behavior by replacing it with desirable behavior. To accomplish this:
The therapist listens, closely interacts with the client by asking pertinent questions,
discussing problem behaviors, then offers to the client the individualistic/personal tools needed for the client to overcome
their undesirable behaviors, emotions or thinking.
The client communicates progress
w/the planned program & using the tools offered by the therapist for changing the negative behaviors into positive behaviors.
The client then works the plan set out by the therapist. Some of this work is done at home by the client - independent of
the therapist - as "homework" that is so important for keeping a timely schedule to meet specific goals.
With CBT - you learn how to stop reactioning
to undesirable situations w/fear, depression or rage & self-defeating or self-damaging behaviors.
self help & homework
a structured & directive program is set up by the therapist that
on the average lasts about 16 weeks....
the two enjoy a teacher/student type relationship, interacting w/questions & inquiries pertaining to the behavioral
techniques previously practiced & new behavior techniques learned
- goals are set by the individual
- after interaction w/the client the therapist sets up the agenda to achieve
the set goals
- the individual works the planned reading assignments, self- study &
homework practicing the techniques learned in the sessions
- with this type of plan goals can be achieved in a much shorter time
span that other types of therapy
certain thinking patterns cause uncomfortable symptoms - offering a distorted picture of what's going on in life
- breeding anxiety. depresseion or anger for no good reason, or inducing or provoking ill-chosen actions
- sometimes self medication.....
smoking, drinking alcohol, drug abuse, relationship
sabotage, sexual promiscuity, over-eating - compulsive shopping .
behavioral therapy is based on:
the assumption that most emotional & behavioral
reactions are learned
the goal of therapy is to help clients unlearn their
unwanted reactions & learn a new way of reacting
this educational system tends to lead to the achievement of long
therapy relies on the
John Winston Bush, PhD
York Institute for Cognitive & Behavioral Therapies
offers an example in his pamphlet
"Overcoming your social phobia" (click the underlined link to read the information
in its entirety - it's awesome material)
"....when someone is suffering
from social phobia, he or she is feeling an exaggerated concern for public opinion - one that goes far beyond what we need
in order to relate to other people for our mutual benefit."
"In social phobia, we are aware
of fear or gnawing anxiety - in the actual presence of other people, in anticipation of being in their presence, or when we
imagine them being somewhere else but thinking of us. But though it might seem otherwise, it is not actually their physical
presence or being in their thoughts that we dread, nor is it even being the direct focus of their attention. It is how they
might judge us if we give them the chance by being in their presence, by calling attention to ourselves, or doing
something to remind them of us."
"Strictly speaking, it isnt even
peoples judgments that we fear, but our own emotional reactions to their judgments,
whether the judgments are real or imaginary. At bottom, what we are afraid of is the private (often quite secret)
experience of feeling embarrassed, ashamed, guilty,
disgraced, rejected or humiliated.
These can be very painful, even
crippling, emotions, and it might make sense to try to
head them off when there is a real likelihood of their happening."
"..... here are the things that (with
one possible exception) you will need to do to become more comfortable with your fellow humans. Theyre grouped under
- Cognitive - correcting some of your thoughts, beliefs and assumptions about how others see you, and
about the stake you have in their opinions of you.
- Behavioral - entering and remaining in the presence of other people long enough for your
fears to subside. (Which they will do all by themselves if you go about it in the right way.)
- Defusion & mindfulness - activities, to be described below, that will make it easier
to carry out your cognitive and behavioral tasks.
- Medication - another way for some people to help carry out their cognitive and
behavioral tasks, but assumed unnecessary until shown otherwise.
- Personal values - clarifying what it is you care
about, and what you would want to work toward if given a chance.
Cognitive: Catching yourself in
errors and learning how to correct them
Behavioral: Learning, day by day,
to be courageous
until it doesnt take much courage anymore
Defusion - This is what happens
when you discover (in your own direct experience, not just as an intellectual proposition) the difference
between your cognitions, emotions and bodily sensations and the reality they are supposed to represent faithfully but often
Mindfulness: One definition:
bringing your complete attention to your present experience on a moment-to-moment basis. Another: paying attention in a particular
way - on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally.
....patients who rely on medications
alone can expect a higher risk of relapse following the end of active treatment than those who make CBT (cognitive behavior
therapy) the mainstay or sole component of their treatment.
Everybody needs to have certain
directions in life that he or she values above others. Without a clear sense of ones own values, it is hard if not impossible
to choose specific goals and pursue them in a coherent way so that life becomes enjoyable, both when one is successful and
when one is not. "
this article is certainly worth
reading if you are experiencing social phobia or anxiety or if you are considering treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy....
simply click the underlined title above to travel over to
his webpage - simply leave this window open and you can return when you are ready!
NY Times interview with cognitive therapy pioneer Dr Aaron Beck
NEW:Washington Post article on cognitive therapy
NY Times article on cognitive therapy
Quick help for bad moods
Glossary of CBT terminology
Comprehensive review of treatments supported by research evidence
Does what you see in those inkblots mean anything?
NEW: EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) therapy debunkedDepression
NEW: American Journal of Psychiatry article: CBT as effective as medication
in treating severe depression
CBT for panic attacks
NY Times article on fear and anxiety
Anxiety disorders: all you'll ever need to know
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
NY Times article on children with OCD
Phobias and their treatment
NY Times article on kids with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety Disorders Association of America
Anxiety treatment in Australia
Shyness and Social Anxiety (Australia)
NY Times article on social phobia
NEW: NY Times article on uncontrolled anger
Study debunks "catharsis" theory that aggressive action reduces
Buddhist meditation: Vipassana
CBT for bulimia nervosa
National Institute of Mental Health public information Web site
Alcohol and drug abuse: The Recovery Directory
British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies
Institute of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychology and Psychotherapy
learning the benefit of feeling calm when confronted w/undesirable situations vs. panic,
anxiety or total loss of control....
one of the goals usually
sought after in ridding oneself of their previously learned negative behavior through CBT.....
cbt emphasizes the rational facts that we all have our undesirable situations in life whether
we are upset about them or not....
what's important with CBT......
is to learn how to deal w/undesirable
situations in a healthy & productive manner so there's only the undesirable situation to deal w/instead of having
to deal w/the results of our previous negative behaviors as well..
COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY'S ANSWER TO PANIC
By james p krehbiel
People who suffer from panic attacks experience symptoms such as heart palpitations, sweating, loss of control, feelings
of impending doom, disorientation, and feeling trapped. Although those who suffer from this disorder feel debilitated, it
is one of the most manageable syndromes to treat through the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
When people first
come for cognitive-behavioral therapy, they may indicate that they have received prior counseling, have made innumerable visits
to doctors, and have been treated in emergency rooms for symptoms associated with their anxiety. Patients are usually desperate
for answers to alleviate their on-going struggle with panic. Patients are relieved to know that their symptoms are treatable
through the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Often, patients feel that they are going crazy, although they need to be
reassured that having “crazy” feelings is a cognitive distortion and is vastly different from those who might
be considered clinically crazy.
Most individuals know the time-frame when they first started experiencing panic attacks.
There may have been triggering events that fostered the emergence of panic. The patient may be unable to make an association
between the panic and a painful triggering experience. Factors such as a significant illness, job stress, family abuse/ trauma,
losing a loved one, and lacking emotional expressiveness may create conditions ripe for panic. Once a panic attack erupts,
further attacks usually follow if an individual is not aware of the cycle of self-defeating thinking and behavior which sustains
the panic process.
The key to curtailing panic is to help people understand that it’s the secondary symptoms
that keep the panic alive. In other words, it’s the “panic over the panic” that sustains the panic pattern.
With cognitive-behavioral therapy, recovery involves educating the sufferer on ways to respond to their self-defeating thought
processes during the onset of their attack. For example, let’s say that you are taking a mid-term exam during college.
You open up the test booklet and immediately react by saying, “Oh my God, none of this material looks familiar; there’s
no way that I can pass this test; if I flunk this test, I might fail this course for the semester; if my parents find out,
there’s going to be hell to pay!” In contrast, you can learn to respond rationally by saying, “Wow, some
of this stuff doesn’t look familiar; just take some deep breaths and relax; I guess I better survey the whole test,
answer the questions that I can and then go back and work on the other one’s; I can tackle this test, I just need to
relax and be patient!”
How one responds to panic determines whether it subsides. Those who fight with their panic
by “awfulizing” about their symptoms, intensify their panic. They may say, “Oh my God, here come those unbearable
feelings again – I feel like I’m going to die!” However those who accept their panic and respond rationally
with thoughts like, “Here comes that panic again – just calm down and take those deep breaths and it will eventually
subside. These feelings won’t last forever, they are time-limited – they’ll be gone soon.”
through cognitive-behavioral therapy to go “down stream” with panic is important to its eradication. Those who
“catastrophize” about their symptoms intensify panic attacks. Learning to rationally respond to panic diminishes
its effect. Trying to figure out what caused an individual’s panic is not necessary to treat it. What is essential is
teaching those who suffer from panic to respond with positive self-talk.
People who experience panic attacks tend
to feel ashamed of their problem. It is important for sufferers to understand that they are not alone – anxiety is apart
of the human condition. Anxiety and panic is not unusual and those who experience it need to learn to be more open and expressive
with all of their feelings. Sharing a wide range of emotions with those you can trust is essential to the healing process.
Those who hide panic as a shame-based pattern set themselves up to repeat it. When those we trust are aware of our authentic
self, which includes our vulnerability, our anxiety problems tend to fade in significance.
can be helpful in dealing with panic disorder. Having a patient schedule a panic time and encouraging them to perseverate
can bring humor and assist in breaking the panic cycle. A ruminating patient might be asked to conduct cardiovascular exercises
during panic-related chest tightness to try to lighten the moment and break the cycle of suffering. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
is a structured, pragmatic approach which assists people in addressing the symptoms of panic by learning to respond to the
disorder with a positive approach to their thinking.
Cognitive behavioral therapies will have the following characteristics:
CBT is based on the Cognitive
Model of Emotional Response.
therapy is based on the scientific fact that our thoughts cause
our feelings & behaviors, not external things, like people, situations & events. The benefit of
this fact is that we can change the way we think to feel/act better even if the situation has not changed.
CBT has become the preferred treatment for conditions
such as these . . .
- Depression & mood swings
- Shyness & social anxiety
- Panic attacks & phobias
- Obsessions & compulsions
- Chronic anxiety or worry
- Post-traumatic stress symptoms
(PTSD/ related conditions)
- Eating disorders (anorexia &
bulimia) & obesity
- Insomnia & other sleep problems
- Difficulty establishing or staying
- Problems w/marriage or other
relationships you're already in
- Job, career or school difficulties
- Feeling stressed out
- Insufficient self-esteem - accepting or respecting yourself
- Inadequate coping skills, or
ill-chosen methods of coping
- Passivity, procrastination &
- Substance abuse, co-dependency
- Trouble keeping feelings such
as anger, sadness, fear, guilt, shame, eagerness, excitement, etc., w/in bounds
- Over-inhibition of feelings or
"Here's something else: our brains are physically
altered by what we experience and thus learn. It is as if the chips in your computer were actually rewired somewhat every
time you ran a program."
John Winston Bush,
New York Institute for Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies
i really like this website....
if you need to know
more about cognitive behavioral therapy - this site is really informative, easy to read and understand - and really interesting!